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Publications

The following list of publications by our team reflect our research at the Institute

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A review on the fatigue behaviour of AlSi10Mg alloy fabricated using laser powder bed fusion technique

A.Raja, Srinivasa Rakesh Cheethirala, Pallavi Gupta, Nilesh J.Vasa, R.Jayaganthan
Review Article
2022

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) of AlSi10Mg alloy is widely studied for the aerospace and automotive applications. Considering safety over cost, fatigue life of the material is very critical for these applications. This article reviews the interrelationship between the LPBF process parameters-microstructure-crack initiation and crack growth mechanisms under fatigue loading conditions. It addresses current problems and potential opportunities in the fabrication of fatigue-resistant AlSi10Mg alloy for light weight structural applications. The methodology for mechanical testing techniques, specimen design guidelines, post-manufacturing treatments, and other aspects of AM parts ought to be standardised. It is possible to standardise the LPBF process thorough understanding of the interrelationships among process parameters, structural aspects such as microstructure of solidified material, and mechanical properties of the fabricated part. The deformation and fracture mechanism during the cyclic loading of influences the fatigue resistance of AlSi10Mg alloy. Influence of these microstructural features, grain morphology, texture, pore size, shape distribution, and surface roughness on the fatigue properties are vital for any applications that prioritize safety over cost. The hierarchical microstructure in the LPBF processed material showed an interesting crack growth mechanism, this mechanism of crack growth is an important novelty of this work. The influence of process of sample removal and post processing on the fatigue properties are significantly control the fatigue properties. Heating the substrate of the built sample and certain post processing conditions were observed to relieve the stress in the as-built material. Post-heat treatment observed to improve the fatigue property of the selective laser melted AlSi10Mg alloy owing to the homogeneous redistribution of Si particle from the cellular boundaries and stress relief. Hence, in this review, the inter-relationship between the LPBF process parameters-microstructure-crack initiation and crack growth mechanisms under cyclic loads were studied in detail. The major aspects reviewed in this article include influence of process parameters on fatigue life and their interaction with the formation of defects. Further, specific factors dictating the fatigue characteristics in as-built and post processed AlSi10Mg alloy are elaborately discussed, concluded by fatigue models detailing the fatigue failure mechanisms.

Intense laser matter interaction in atoms, finite systems and condensed media: recent experiments and theoretical advances

Krishnan, S., Mudrich, M.
Journal Article
2022

This special issue of the European Journal of Physics: Special Topics entitled “Intense Laser Matter Interaction in Atoms, Finite Systems and Condensed Media” published a set of 21 articles aiming to put in perspective this burgeoning area of science, application and technology. The invention of chirped pulse amplification by Strickland and Mourou, which led to their Nobel prizes in 2018, has ushered in a new era in photon–matter interaction where coherent intense light pulses in the optical and infrared domains play a central role. This development has not only called in creative experimental methods, but has demanded new theoretical approaches working in the non-perturbative and highly nonlinear regimes of light–matter interaction. Both for fundamental physics as well as key applications these have played an essential role. Key pillars of this subject, captured in this collection, are laser-induced nanometer-scale plasmas ignited in unsupported nanoparticles, laser-based particle acceleration taking advantage of unprecedented field gradients, the generation of high-order harmonics opening up attosecond science and ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy, and the generation of terahertz pulses for time-domain spectroscopy of new materials.

Heat Treatment Design for IN718 by Laser Metal Deposition with High Deposition Rates: Modeling, Simulation, and Experiments

Chongliang Zhong, Venkatesh Pandian Narayana Samy, Norbert Pirch, Andres Gasser, Gandham Phanikumar, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum
Journal Article
2022

Laser metal deposited processed Ni-based superalloy IN718 is characterized by elemental micro-segregation, anisotropy, and Laves phases due to the rapid solidification and therefore needs homogenization heat treatment to achieve comparable properties of wrought alloys. In this article, we report a simulation-based methodology to design heat treatment IN718 in a laser metal deposition (LMD) process by using Thermo-calc. Initially, the finite element modeling simulates the laser melt pool to compute the solidification rate (G) and temperature gradient (R). Then, the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is computed through Kurz-Fisher and Trivedi modeling integrated with finite element method (FEM) solver. Later, a DICTRA homogenization model based on the PDAS input values computes the homogenization heat treatment time and temperature. The simulated time scales are verified for two different experiments with contrast laser parameters and are found to be in good agreement confirmed with the results from scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a methodology for integrating the process parameter with the heat treatment design is developed, and a heat treatment map for IN718 is generated that can be integrated with an FEM solver for the first time in the LMD process.

Nanosecond and sub-nanosecond laser-assisted microscribing of Cu thin films in a salt solution

Sooraj Shiby, Nilesh J Vasa, Matsuo Shigeki
Journal Article
2021

Pulsed laser-based material removal is a preferred technique for microscribing of copper (Cu) film coated on polymers, as the pulse width limits the heat diffusion. However, experimental studies have shown that microscribing of Cu in air results in recast/redeposit formation and oxidation. Although the water medium can reduce these effects to a certain extent, the material removal rate is lesser for Cu. This article reports the influence of laser pulse duration on a hybrid method to enhance the pulsed laser-assisted microscribing of a copper thin film in the presence of an environmentally friendly sodium chloride salt solution (NaCl). The focused laser beam irradiation of Cu film results in ablation with a temperature of the zone well above the boiling point of Cu, which in turn, can assist in accelerating the chemical reaction. In this hybrid scribing technique, along with laser-based material removal, laser-activated chemical etching also helps in removing the material selectively. A sub-nanosecond laser with a pulse width of 500 ps (picosecond [ps] laser) and a nanosecond laser with a pulse width of 6 ns (nanosecond [ns] laser), with a wavelength of 532 nm, are used to understand the influence of laser pulse duration on this hybrid material removal mechanism. Hybrid microscribing with the ps- and ns lasers in salt solution resulted in an increase in the channel depth by ≈5 µm and ≈9 µm, respectively, compared to the channel depth obtained in deionized water. The theoretical model shows that during the ns laser ablation, the cooling rate is slower, resulting in a high temperature in the ablation zone for a longer duration and improved material removal.

Nanosecond laser-assisted micro-scribing of a copper film on a dielectric material with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based monitoring

Sooraj Shiby, Nilesh J.Vasa
Journal Article
2021

Pulsed laser-based material removal is a preferred micro-scribing technique for Copper (Cu) cladded onto an insulating substrate, such as a flame-retardant glass-reinforced epoxy resin (FR4), because of the less thermal diffusion as well as the process flexibility. This paper reports the pulsed laser-assisted micro-scribing of Cu (35 µm) from a dielectric material. The process was monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique (LIBS). For the complete removal of Cu from the substrate material, multiple laser scans were required. The Cu I line intensity in the LIBS spectra was decreasing with an increase in the microchannel depth. During the final laser scan, the FR4 substrate was getting ablated, and in the LIBS spectra, the characteristic emission lines from the substrate elements such as Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Sodium (Na) and Silicon (Si) were observed. The depth for a single laser pulse was estimated from a theoretical model, including the melt ejection due to the recoil pressure. Approximate microchannel depth was predicted based on the theoretical simulation.